POFMA’ed v2020.05.14

Note: a more recent version of the dataset and its analysis is available (please check the Updates section of the website).


This dataset’s methodology and sources

A full description of the dataset’s methodology can be found here.

The full dataset can be downloaded here.

The sources used in data collection are government reports (POFMA Office press releases and Gov.sg Factually articles). Media reports and direct sources (the communications themselves) are also used to verify the accessibility of some communications.

How does the dataset define reports, uses and communications?
  • A report is a government press release issued to announce a use of the legislation.
  • Within a single report, one can find multiple distinct directions or orders under POFMA. Each of these are classified as a distinct use of POFMA.
  • Each direction or order can affect multiple distinct electronic communications, such as a Facebook post or website article.

For example:

  • According to Report 1, a Facebook post is the subject of a correction direction, issued to Individual A.
  • According to Report 2, this same Facebook post is also the subject of a targeted correction direction, issued to Facebook.

The POFMA’ed dataset would thus track that Facebook post as one communication, subject to two distinct POFMA uses, according to two distinct reports.

According to the Dataset

  • POFMA in numbers: One can find 47 distinct uses of POFMA affecting 42 electronic communications, recorded in 25 government reports.
  • The latest use of POFMA (regarding New Naratif’s video) marks the first use by Minister K. Shanmugam as the Minister for Law (he had previously used the law as the Minister for Home Affairs).
  • This latest use of POFMA marks the first use concerning content on Youtube (all prior uses were concerning content on Facebook, the HardwareZone Forum or individual websites).

Improving the Dataset

Are you thinking of using this dataset? As a student, I’m ever eager to improve this dataset’s accuracy and useability to others, and am always eager to hear your thoughts and feedback. If you have thoughts, comments or suggestions, please do direct them towards POFMAed@gmail.com.